Energy and emissions standards

Regional and international standards: energy audits and  greenhouse gas emissions.

Energy audit types Australia and New Zealand (AS / NZS 3598:2014)

Australia and New Zealand have formal standards for energy assessments. This is covered by AS/NZS 3598:2014 Parts 1, 2 and 3.

  • AS/NZS 3598.1:2014 Part 1 Commercial Buildings
  • AS/NZS 3598 2:2014 Part 2 Industrial and Related Activities
  • AS/NZS 3598.3:2014 Part 3 Transport and Related Activities

See more on these three parts on the Australian Government website.

These are further broken down into three Types:

Type 1

A Type 1 ‘overview’ audit’ provides an assessment of the overall energy consumption of a site, benchmarks the energy consumption as reasonable or excessive, and allows for tracking and evaluation of energy measures. It may be in the form of a desktop study, but needs sufficient information to determine the site’s overall level of consumption. Tracking records bulk energy use information, such as from billing records, to give an overview of energy use patterns. Monitoring implies closer measuring of energy use patterns. Only tracking is applicable to this level of audit.

Type 2

Through tracking and sometimes monitoring, a Type 2 audit identifies the sources of energy for a site, the amount of energy supplied, and for what purpose the energy is used. It also identifies areas of potential savings, recommends measures to take, and provides a statement of costs and savings.

Type 3

A Type 3 audit provides a comprehensive analysis of energy usage, savings and costs. It incorporates both tracking and monitoring, and may cover the whole site or focus on an individual operational area.

In general, the results identified within the report require an appropriate level of accuracy and economic analysis to justify a substantial capital investment by stakeholders.

AS / NZS 3598:2014

This joint Australian/New Zealand standard was prepared by Joint Technical Committee EN-001, Energy Auditing.* It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 9 September 2014 and on behalf of the Council of Standards New Zealand on 21 August 2014.

This standard was published on 2 October 2014

Greenhouse Gas Protocol: emissions – 3 scopes

Scope 1

Direct greenhouse gas emissions, or emissions created as a direct result of an organisation’s activity / activities. For example, the emissions produced when coal is combusted at a power station are Scope 1 emissions.

Scope 2

Indirect greenhouse gas emissions such as purchased electricity, steam or heat. Emissions created as a result of an activity / activities that consume electricity, steam or heat.

Scope 3

Indirect emissions from purchased materials such as fuel and paper. Other examples include emissions released into the atmosphere as a result of transport activities using vehicles not owned or controlled by the reporting organisation; activities consuming electricity not covered in Scope 2 (e.g. transmission and distribution losses); and emissions due to supplier services such as waste removal.

*The following are represented on Committee EN-001:

  • Association of Building Sustainability Assessors
  • Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
  • Australian Industry Group
  • Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heating
  • Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia
  • Consult Australia
  • Department of Industry (Australia)
  • Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority of New Zealand
  • Energy Efficiency Council
  • Energy Management Association, New Zealand
  • Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand
  • Office of Environment and Heritage, NSW
  • Sustainability Victoria

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